Q: After obtaining a work permit, how are school districts supposed to know if a student is changing jobs? A: Every employer is required by law to notify the school district in writing each time a student is hired and when the student is no longer employed. This must be done within five days of the start or end of the employment by the student. The hours that minors can work depend on age, type of work and whether or not the minor attends school. New York State has one of the strictest child labor laws in the country. The law limits the number of hours that minors under the age of 18 can work when the school is in session. To work between 10 p.m. and midnight on the eve of a school day, 16- and 17-year-olds need written permission from a parent or guardian and a certificate of satisfactory academic performance from their school. 12- and 13-year-olds who have a farm permit to pick berries, fruits or vegetables may not be working: Does a minor need a job offer to obtain a work permit? A: No, Pennsylvania`s Child Labor Act has no language that suggests a minor must have a job offer to get a work permit. Of course, a minor can apply for a job offer and accept it before receiving a work permit.
Once the work permit is issued, the minor can start working. In all cases where a minor is hired by an employer, it is the employer`s responsibility to notify the issuing officer within five (5) days of such employment. Q: What factors play a role in determining how many hours a miner can work? A: There are several factors to consider when determining how many hours a minor can work on a given day. “Periods of employment” are defined as hours outside of school hours as determined by the school district concerned. The “regular school week” is defined as the five days that begin from Monday to Friday when the school is in session. “School holidays” are defined as the period during which a minor is not required to be in school, as determined by the school district in which he or she resides. The term does not include Saturdays and Sundays, unless one or more vacation days go or follow on Saturday or Sunday. A minor enrolled in the summer school is subject to the age restriction during a normal school week, not during the school holidays. The Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry provides a “Summary of Child Labor Regulations” on its website. Q: What are the periods of employment of minors aged 16 and over during school holidays? A: During school holidays, minors over the age of 16 are not allowed to work more than 10 hours a day and work until 1 a.m. A minor may not work more than 48 hours in a single week, provided that he voluntarily works more than 44 hours in a single week. The minor may reject any application for employment of more than 44 hours in a single week without reprisal from the employer.
The Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry provides a “Summary of Child Labor Regulations” on its website. Q: Can a student drop out at the age of 16 to work as a babysitter? A: Section 1330 of the Pennsylvania School Code allows a 16-year-old to exit if the job they are looking for requires a work permit. There must be a formal employer-employee relationship. This means that all state and federal notifications from employers, as well as withholding taxes and tax returns, must be made. Most child care arrangements cannot meet this standard. Nor does self-employment fall within the conditions laid down in § 1330. 7 p.m. (9 p.m.) B. outside the calendar school year) until 7 a.m. Q: Can a school district refuse or revoke a work permit because the student has achieved academic results? A: Yes. Under the applicable Pennsylvania Child Labor Act, the application may be rejected if, according to the decision of the issuing official, the applicant is unable to provide adequate academic performance if allowed to work during the school year. Similarly, an issuing official may revoke a work permit if, in the opinion of the issuing official, the issuing official is unable to provide adequate academic performance if he or she is authorized to work during the school year.
Q: What are the periods of employment for minors aged 14 and 15? A: During a normal school week, minors aged 14 and 15 are not allowed to work before 7 a.m. or after 7 p.m. with the exception that during school holidays, a minor may be employed until 9 p.m. In addition, a minor may not be employed more than three hours per school day or more than eight hours per day when there is no school. A minor may not be employed for more than 18 hours in a normal school week and no more than 40 hours in a week when the school is not at school. A regular school week is the five days that start Monday through Friday when the school is in session. School holidays are the period during which a minor is not required to be in school, as determined by the school district in which the minor resides. The Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry provides a “Summary of Child Labor Regulations” on its website.
The Pennsylvania Child Labor Act (CLL) was enacted to “ensure the health, safety, and well-being of minors by prohibiting their employment or work in certain establishments and occupations and under certain specific age groups.” The CLL requires minors to obtain a work permit before starting work. This Law, with the exception of agricultural work or housework in a private household, applies to work in an institution other than the minor`s place of residence. Resource links: Minors aged 16 and 17 enrolled in school are not allowed to work more than nine hours a day, 40 hours a school week, 48 hours a week extracurricular and six days a week. Specific information on how this applies to minors between the ages of 14 and 17 can be found in Section 6 of the Child Labor Act on the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry website.